Monday, November 29, 2010

Scientific Terms

Anatomical Reference Position is considered the starting poisition for body segment movements. It is standing in a erect position with all body parts, including the plams of the hands facing forward.

Transverse Plane movements include left and right rotation, medial and lateral roatation, supination and ronation, and horizontal abductuion and adduction.

Flexion of a joint is to bend it or decrease the angle between the bones of the joint. Movements of flexion are in the sagittal plane.

Sagittal Plane is the longitudinal plane dividing the head and torso into left and right parts (not halves). It is parallel to the median plane.

Medial refers to a structure that is closer to the median plane thatn another structure in the body. "Medial" is not synonymous with "median."

Extension of a joint is to generally straighten it. In the anatomical position, most joints are in relaxed extension or neutral position. In relation to anatomical position, movements of extension are directed in the sagittal plane.

Hyperextension is extreme or abnormal extension.

Abduction of a joint moves a bone away from the midline of the body (or hand or foot). Movements of abduction are are directed in the coronal plane.

Coronal or Frontal Plane is a longitudinal plane dividing the body (head, torso, limbs) or its parts into front and back halves or parts.

Adduction of a joint moves a bone toward the midline of the body (or in case of hand or foot toward the midline of the hand or foot). In relation to the anatomical position, movements of adduction are directed in the coronal plane.

Dorsi Flexion is extension at the ankle joint.

Plantar Flexion is when flexion, or the decrease of the angle between the bones of the joint, occurs at the ankle joint.

Pronation is internal rotation of the radiohumeral joint.

Range of Motion is the angle through which a joint moves from anatomical position to the extreme limit of segment motion in a particular direction.

Rotation of a joint is to turn the moving bone about its axis. Rotation toward the body is internal or medial rotation; rotation away from the body is external or lateral rotation. Rotation of the clavicle allows for elevation of the humerus.

Radial Deviation is a frontal plane movement of the hand where the hand rotates toward the Radius (thumb side).

Ulnar Deviation is a frontal plane movement of the hand where the hand rotates toward the ulna (little finger).

Frontal Plane movements include abduction and adduction, lateral flexion, elevation and depression, inversion and eversion, and radial and ulnar deviation.

Axis of Rotation is the imaginary line perpendicular to the plane of rotation and passing through the center of rotation.

Mediolateral Axis is the imaginary line around which sagittal plane rotations occur.

Phase 1 - Scientific

In order to get into the proper position to do a soccer throw-in you will start in anatomical reference position. To have the ball out in front of you at about waist high your arms will have to medially adduct and internally rotate or pronate about 45 degrees and at the radiohumeral joint. Pronation occurs in the transverse plane. Flexion at the humeroulnar hinge joint will be 120 degree's.

Phase 2 - Scientific

During this phase you will run toward the field. Running occurs in the saggital plane. Saggital plane movements occur around the mediolateral axis of rotation.

During each step there are many things that occur one leg at a time. The hip flexors help to raise the upper portion of the leg. Flexion also occurs at the knee joint. The leg then straightens out or extends through the hip and knee joint. When placing the foot on the ground the heel touches the ground first which is dorsiflexion. It then rolls forward until the foot is in plantar flexion and pushes off the ground. The other leg will then go through all of these steps and the process repeats. You can take as many steps as you want but it shouldn't be less than 2.

As you get closer to the touch line you will begin to flex your shoulders to raise your arms. At this beginning phase of shoulder flexion slight rotation of the scapula also occurs.

Phase 3 - Scientific

As you approach the sideline you will come to an abrupt stop. As you do this you will contract your abdominal muscles and hyperextend your spine You will continue raising the ball until you bring it back as far as you can behind your head by flexing your arms at the joints of the shoulders and the elbow as far as your range of motion allows. Clavicular rotation allows humeral elevation. Radial deviation occurs at the wrists to bring the ball as far back as possible. This occurs in the frontal plane.

Phase 4 - Scientific

While keeping the ball centered, you will extend your arms at the shoulders to bring the ball forward over your head. When your arms get to about ear level you will fully extend your arms at the elbow 180 degrees. As you get to the end of your reach ulnar deviation will occur. Your fingers will remain abducted but will change from flexion to extension as you release the ball. It is important to remember that you cannot step over the touch line and both feet need to be on the ground when releasing the ball. Be careful to bring both arms down at the same time and keep hands level so you don't put any twist on the ball.


Medicine Ball Sit-ups

Medicine ball sit-ups are a good way to develop strength for your mid section. You will also use your hip flexors. These medicine ball sit-ups are a great way to work your chest, arms and shoulders while you work your abs. The throwing element helps to increase your strength and also adds a cardio element to this exercise.

To do a Medicine Ball Sit-up you will sit on the floor with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. You will start without the medicine ball and do a sit up. When in the upper most position you will catch the ball. As you go back down to the floor you will lower the medicine ball to your chest. As your back touches the floor you will sit back up and push the medicine ball up towards the ceiling and throw it to your workout partner. You will then do another sit-up without the ball and repeat.
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It is possible to perform this exercise without a partner by thowing the ball up in the air and then catching it. You will have to eliminate the sit-up without the medicine ball.

Medicine Ball Pull-Overs on Stability Ball

Medicine ball pull-overs are a great exercise to help improve your strength and range of motion in the muscles and joints used during a soccer throw-in.

To get into proper position you should sit on the exercise ball with your feet shoulder with apart. Slowly walk out so you are rolling down the ball until the ball is positioned between your shoulder blades. You want to be in a bridge position with your spine parallel to the ground. Your knees should be bent 90 degrees. Once you are in this position you are ready to add in the medicine ball. The ball should be held on it's sides so your arms are facing one another. Your arms should bent at about 120 degrees throught out the entire motion. Once you are in the proper position you are ready to begin.

When doing this exercise you will take a deep breath and slowly lower the ball behind your head. During the downward movement you will feel the stretch in your chest and in your triceps which will help to improve your range of motion. When bringing the ball back up to its original position you will exhale. During the upward movement you will use your triceps, lats and chest.
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It is also possible to do this exercise on a weight bench. By adding the exercise ball to Medicine Ball Pul-Overs your core is used to stabilize your position on the ball. This exercise works many of the muscles used during a soccer throw-in and over time will help to improve onces strength which will allow for longer throw-ins.